Tolerance & Inclusion


Pope Francis Visits the UAE – February 3-5, 2019

In February 2019, His Holiness Pope Francis will make a historic visit to the UAE. The visit will be the first time a sitting Pontiff visits the Arabian Peninsula – the birthplace of Islam. This momentous occasion reflects the UAE’s openness and commitment to inclusivity and religious freedom.

Pope Francis will meet with Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, and the Muslim Council of Elders before celebrating mass in front of more than 100,000 people at Zayed Sports City in Abu Dhabi.

While in the UAE, Pope Francis will also participate alongside the Grand Imam, Sheikh Al-Azhar Ahmed Tayeb, at a conference of religious leaders from around the world.

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Welcoming Pope Francis

His Holiness Pope Francis will visit to the UAE from February 3-5, 2018, the first visit by a pope to the Arabian Peninsula – the birthplace of Islam. In line with the UAE’s commitment to inclusion and religious freedom, the visit will encourage dialogue and explore commonalities between people of different faiths.

While in the UAE, Pope Francis will attend a reception with Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, at the Presidential Palace. He will also join the Muslim Council of Elders for a discussion at the Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque and attend an interfaith dialogue with other religious leaders from around the world, including the Grand Imam, Sheikh Al-Azhar Ahmed Tayeb.

His final stop will be a large public mass at Zayed Sports City in Abu Dhabi on February 5. More than 100,000 worshipers from around the UAE are expected to attend the event, which provides a unique opportunity for Catholics to see Pope Francis in person. 

“The UAE is delighted to welcome His Holiness Pope Francis on the upcoming visit to the UAE,” said Sheikh Mohamed. “He is a symbol of peace, tolerance and the promotion of brotherhood.”

Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, delivered an in-person invitation to Pope Francis on behalf of the UAE in June 2018. Sheikh Mohamed, meanwhile, visited the Vatican in 2016, meeting with Pope Francis to discuss ways to solve pressing global challenges and enhance interfaith cooperation.

The UAE has welcomed Catholics and Christians of all kinds since even before the unification of the Emirates in 1971. The first Roman Catholic mass was held in Abu Dhabi in 1960. Nearly 60 years later, an estimated one million Catholics live and worship freely in the UAE, with congregations comprised of worshipers from around the world.

The UAE's Progressive Vision

The UAE has a new vision for the Middle East region — an alternative, future-oriented model that supports moderate Islam, empowers women, embraces diversity, encourages innovation and welcomes global engagement. These values have been ingrained in the UAE's DNA since the country's founding in 1971. It explains why over 200 nationalities call the UAE home and why different religions have built 40 churches, two Hindu temples and a Sikh temple, which welcome multi-national congregations.

The region’s largest Anglican Church, meanwhile, is currently being built in Abu Dhabi and will accommodate more than 4,000 worshipers once complete. And in 2017, Sheikh Mohamed renamed a mosque in Abu Dhabi to “Mary, Mother of Jesus” to build stronger understanding between Christians and Muslims.

Reverend Canon Andy Thompson, Chaplain of St Andrew's Church in Abu Dhabi, describes the UAE as “a model for religious tolerance in the region.”

The UAE government is committed to encouraging values of inclusion and coexistence. The Ministry of Tolerance, led by His Excellency Sheikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan, implements programs that foster respect, peaceful coexistence and mutual understanding among people in the UAE. The UAE is celebrating 2019 as the “Year of Tolerance.”

Numerous UAE-US collaborations underscore shared principles of inclusion and mutual respect.

In 2018, the Ministry of Tolerance worked with the US Embassy in the UAE to host the Reginald Golden Singers, a musical group affiliated with the Howard University Gospel Choir. The group performed to diverse audiences throughout the UAE.

In addition, in July 2018, a delegation of Emirati government officials and UAE-based religious leaders – representing Islam, Christianity and Sikhism – attended the US Department of State’s Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom in Washington, DC. And in the fall, US Ambassador at Large for Religious Freedom Sam Brownback attended the Forum for Promoting Peace in Abu Dhabi.

A Tradition of Inclusion

Values of inclusion, mutual respect and religious freedom have been ingrained in the UAE’s DNA since the country’s founding in 1971. As a result, people of countless faiths and more than 200 nationalities now live together, side by side, in the UAE.

In the late 1950s, Sheikh Shakhbut, then the Ruler of Abu Dhabi, welcomed the growing community of Christian oil and gas workers to the Arabian Gulf region. As a welcoming gesture, the government donated land for the St. Andrew’s Anglican Church, which opened in 1968.

Other denominations thrived, too. In 1960, the first Roman Catholic mass was held in Abu Dhabi, followed by the opening of the St. Joseph’s Church on the Abu Dhabi Corniche in 1965 – also on land donated by the government. The UAE quickly became a model for religious inclusion in the region, with the Vatican moving the See of Southern Arabia from Aden to Abu Dhabi in the 1970s.

As the UAE continued to grow, so too did its religious diversity. Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jews and many others began to call the UAE home. Today, the UAE has 40 churches, two Hindu temples, one Sikh temple and one Buddhist temple.

Since unification, the UAE government has consistently demonstrated its commitment to inclusion, implementing laws that protect religious freedom and programs that foster interfaith understanding. The temporary Constitution adopted in 1971 explicitly guaranteed freedom of religion to worshipers of all faiths. This guarantee was reaffirmed in 1996 when the Federal Supreme Council permanently adopted the Constitution.

In 2016, the UAE unveiled a National Tolerance Program and established a Ministry of Tolerance, now led by HE Sheikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan. The Ministry implements programs that foster respect, inclusion and mutual understanding among people in the UAE.

The UAE is also working with partners around the world to advance religious inclusion. The country first established diplomatic relations with the Vatican in 2007. And in 2016, HH Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, met His Holiness Pope Francis at the Vatican to discuss shared values of inclusion and understanding.

Diversity in the UAE

The United Arab Emirates is home to people from all around the world, representing nearly 200 nationalities and countless different faiths. As a result, the UAE government is committed to supporting inclusion and openness within its borders and across the region.

Protecting religious freedom is a central component of these efforts, which is why the UAE Constitution guarantees freedom of worship to all people. Today, Muslims and non-Muslims, Emiratis and non-Emiratis alike, live together peacefully in the UAE.


Over 75 percent of UAE residents are Muslim. The UAE believes in the true nature of Islam as a religion of peace and compassion. In that spirit, the UAE is committed to encouraging values of compassion and cooperation through interfaith dialogue and international partnerships.

For the last five years, Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies has held an annual conference in Abu Dhabi. More than 800 experts, religious leaders and scholars from 120 countries attended the 2018 Forum to discuss ways to further Islamic values like friendship, peace and inclusion. Meanwhile, the Abu Dhabi-based Muslim Council of Elders seeks to encourage peace and inclusion in Muslim communities worldwide.

In addition, the UAE’s commitment to helping those in need is rooted in the values of Islam. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, Founder and first President of the UAE, drew on the compassionate teachings of Islam to shape his vision for a generous, open-minded nation.

“To treat every person no matter what his creed or race as a special soul is a mark of Islam,” Sheikh Zayed once said. The UAE continues to follow Sheikh Zayed’s example, and the nation has become a model for moderation, inclusion and generosity in the Middle East.


Communities of foreign Christians began arriving in the UAE in the late 1950s. The rulers of the emirates welcomed the newcomers, participating in interfaith activities and donating land for the construction of churches. In 1960, the first Roman Catholic mass was held in Abu Dhabi, followed by the opening of the St. Joseph’s Church on the Abu Dhabi Corniche in 1965. St. Andrew’s Anglican Church, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2018, opened nearby in 1968.

Since the UAE’s unification in 1971, the country has continued to welcome Christians from around the world. About 12.6 percent of the UAE’s population practice Christianity, and the UAE is now home to 40 churches and roughly 700 ministries. In addition, the region’s largest Anglican Church is being constructed in Abu Dhabi and will accommodate more than 4,000 worshipers once complete. All of the churches stand on land donated by the ruling families of each emirate.

“The religious freedom we enjoy here is fantastic,” says Father Ani Xavier, Parish Priest of St. Paul’s Church in Mussaffah. “Everyone is respected. We are given land and the Rulers are excellent.”

In 2019, His Holiness Pope Francis will make an historic visit to the UAE, marking the first time a pope has ever visited the Arabian Peninsula. Pope Francis will meet with HH Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, and the Muslim Council of Elders, continuing the UAE’s strong relationship with the Vatican.

Although the UAE is a relatively young nation, Christianity in the Arabian Gulf region spans back centuries. In 1992, archaeologists on Sir Bani Yas Island in Abu Dhabi discovered a Christian monastery they believe was built around 600 CE. The UAE preserves the monastery today as a reminder of the Emirati people’s inclusive cultural heritage.


Hindus have lived in the UAE for decades, with the first Hindu temple in Dubai built as early as 1958. Roughly 6.6 percent of the UAE population practices Hinduism. Two Hindu temples now operate in Dubai, and several cremation facilities in Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah provide Hindu burial rites.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has visited the UAE twice, strengthening the bilateral relationship between India and the UAE. During his first visit in 2015, Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, announced a land donation for Abu Dhabi’s first Hindu temple, the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir.

In 2018, Modi watched as Indian sadhus performed a stone laying ceremony to kick off the construction of the temple. When the structure is completed in 2020, it will be the first traditional Hindu stone temple in the Middle East. “It will be a holy place where humanity and harmony will unite,” said Modi.


About 1,000 Sikhs lived in the Emirates in 1958, many of them worshiping at Dubai’s Hindu temple. Over 60 years later, Sikhs are one of the most prominent expatriate communities in the UAE, with more than 50,000 now living in the country.

The UAE’s first Sikh temple opened in Dubai in 2012, after Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Ruler of Dubai and Vice President of the UAE, granted land for its construction. The 100,000 square-foot facility, known as Guru Nanak Darbar, is the largest gurdwara in the Gulf region. The temple offers an array of religious, non-religious and interfaith services, and it attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors from around the world each year.

The Sikh community holds an interfaith iftar each year at Guru Nanak Darbar. People of all backgrounds, including foreign diplomats and UAE ministers, attend the annual event.

“In a world that struggles with extremism, the best way to cut it is through creating friendships among different faiths and nationalities,” explained Surender Singh Kandhari, chairman of the temple. “It is only through communication that we can overcome adversities.”


Roughly 500,000 Buddhists live in the UAE, most of them expatriates from Sri Lanka. Buddhists from around the UAE travel to the Mahamevnawa Buddhist Monastery in Dubai to practice their faith. The facility is the first Buddhist temple on the Arabian Peninsula.

The UAE’s Buddhist community has taken small steps to raise awareness of the faith, having participated in interfaith events such as iftars. Buddhist leaders are also working with the Government of Dubai in the hopes of building a larger temple.


Recent news reports have highlighted the UAE’s nascent Jewish community, which worships and gathers in Dubai. In the UAE, Jews and people of all faiths can worship freely. Diversity, inclusion and respect for all people, regardless of background or culture, are core Emirati values and central to the UAE’s vision for a better future.

Other Religions

As one of the most diverse societies in the world, the UAE is home to several other religious groups. These communities include Parsis, Baha’is, Druze and more.

A US Partner to Counter Extremism

The UAE is dedicated to supporting moderate Islam and countering extremist interpretations of the faith. The country is leading efforts to promote inclusion and compassion through Islam, countering the root cause of extremism and disrupting the messages that lead to radicalization. To this end, the General Authority of Islamic Affairs and Endowments works closely with religious leaders in the UAE to monitor for and prevent extremist preaching in UAE religious centers.

In addition, the UAE is host to the Sawab Center, a bilateral initiative between the UAE and US to counter extremist propaganda and terrorist messaging online. Headquartered in Abu Dhabi, this joint digital media hub utilizes social media platforms to amplify credible voices speaking out against ISIS and counter false extremist claims.

The UAE is also home to Hedayah, a global think tank that provides communities and governments around the world with the tools to increase their capabilities to counter extremism and disrupt terrorist recruitment efforts.

The UAE’s holistic approach to countering violent extremism includes regular coordination with the US government and other foreign allies.

Recent News

Exclusive: Inside the tiny Buddhist temple that serves half a million Dubai worshippers

December 31, 2018

The National

The UAE’s Buddhist Monastery, the only such temple on the Arabian Peninsula, granted The National exclusive access into its facilities ahead of the Year of Tolerance. More than 500,000 Buddhists worship freely in the UAE, with the monastery providing this community a place to perform prayers and meditation.


Exclusive: Sheikh Nahyan on the importance of religion as a positive force

December 19, 2018

The National

In an exclusive interview with The National, Sheikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan, UAE Minister of Tolerance, speaks about the UAE’s focus on inclusion in the Year of Tolerance. "Our focus should always be on bringing down the walls of misunderstanding and reviving the traditions of tolerance and useful exchange of ideas and concerns,” Sheikh Nahyan notes.


Francis to say first Mass by a pope on Arabian Peninsula in UAE

December 12, 2018


Shortly after His Holiness Pope Francis announced his February 2019 visit to the UAE, he confirmed he would celebrate a public Mass with fellow Catholics. Retuers reported that the event would be the first Mass by a pope on the Arabian Peninsula.


As the Gulf Warms Up to Israel, a Synagogue Grows in Dubai

December 5, 2018


Bloomberg details the UAE’s multinational Jewish community that worships and gathers in Dubai. Jewish residents interviewed in the story describe the UAE as a place of inclusion and mutual respect.


The United Arab Emirates Is A Home For All Faiths In The Middle East

July 26, 2018

Daily Caller

Reverend Andy Thompson and Pastor Jeramie Rinne, both Christian clergy members in Abu Dhabi, describe their experience of religious inclusion in the UAE. “The United Arab Emirates, a small country in the Arabian Gulf, is pioneering a different path,” they write. “In the UAE, people of all faiths are encouraged to worship freely, and many have their own places of worship, supported by the government.”


The first Noel: 60 years of Christmas carols in Abu Dhabi

December 24, 2017

The National

This Christmas Eve piece from the The National in 2017 details the UAE’s long history of friendly Muslim-Christian relations. The article traces the UAE’s inclusion of Christians to the arrival of expatriates from Britain, North America and India in the late 1950s.